Wash and peel the green papaya, cut in half and remove the seeds, Shred it using a shredding tool or julienne it with a knife, being very careful.
Peel the garlic cloves, wash the chilies remove tops, slice the lime into wedges and halve the tomatoes.
With a large mortar and pestle start pounding the garlic, chilies, salt, sugar and shrimp paste together.
Add a handful of the papaya and then the halved cherry tomatoes into the mortar, and gently pound them into the mixture. Use a spoon to fold over the mixture and continue to pound them together. Don't pound the cherry tomatoes too much you want to remain in tact.
Add the remaining shredded papaya, fish sauce and squeeze the lime juice. Continue to pound and mix everything together turning often.
Taste the salad and add whatever you feel in necessary to get that balance of spicy, salty, sour, sweet and umami flavors.
Transfer to a bowl and serve.
It is fine to make ahead and refrigerate to let the flavors meld together, it actually gets a little better with time.